1. Mission and Vision
Papanikolaou Asimina-
PhD Candidate
School of Public Policy and Leadership 
 -Foundation on Doctoral Studies-
 (Walden University, 2013)

    As a civil servant, working in a public hospital in fields such as economic sectors, human resources management offices and emergency units as an executive, I face, everyday, the impact of burning-out situations or the opposite, job satisfaction senses.
    During my last MSc in Continuing Education in 2011, I found after a thorough research of the data of 35 General Hospitals in Northern Greece that there is a strong connection between job satisfaction and continuing education. To become more specific, there were indications that when the hospital executives where satisfied from their job was when they really knew what to do, how to do and all the explanations about their job which could make their professional lives easier and to response quickly to the patients’ needs and to the hospital’s administration policy while “enhancing creativity, innovation, and problem-solving”, (Walden University, 2013a).
    The whole situation concerning job satisfaction is that the person who feels satisfied may feel self-esteem also. A satisfied employee is more productive than an unhappy, unsatisfied one. Continuing education programs concerning the rise of self esteem of the executives, as Maslow’s pyramid of Νeeds explains, may lead to the establishment of a pool of productive and inspired staff,  ready to help and support  the patients, their families and finally the community, meeting Walden’s mission “as scholar-practitioners so that they can effect positive social change” (Walden University, 2013b).
    A Center of Consult and Lifelong Learning in all Public Hospitals in Greece is my further vision for future, with a variety of learning subjects concentrated to Self-esteem and Self-acquisition based on Maslow’s theory.
My vision meets the vision of Walden’s University “where knowledge is judged worthy to the degree that it can be applied by its graduates to the immediate solutions of critical societal challenges, thereby advancing the greater global good” and  thinking of the strong commitment to the results accepted to be achieved through ethic and committed Leadership, knowledge and Lifelong Learning principles.

1.      Walden University, (2013a), Walden University Student Handbook: Introduction, June 2013,
2.      Walden University, (2013b),  Walden University Student Handbook:  Vision, Mission and Goals, June  3013,


1.a.     PLAGIARISM- an example of assessment

An original paragraph:
"Doctors, whose first allegiance is supposed to be to their patients, have traditionally stood between drug company researchers and trusting consumers. Yet unless there is evidence of misconduct (the deliberate misrepresentation of something as fact by someone who knows it is not), it is very difficult to discover and virtually impossible to prove that a piece of biomedical research has been tainted by conflict of interest. No study is perfect, and problems arise in the labs of even the most conscientious and honest researchers. Although biomedical research incorporates rigorous scientific rules and is often critically scrutinized by peers, the information can nevertheless be warped—by ending a study because the results are disappointing; changing rules mid-study; not trying to publish negative results; publicizing preliminary results even with final and less positive results in hand; skimming over or even not acknowledging drawbacks; and, especially, casting the results in the best light or, as scientists say, buffing them,"(Crossen, 1994, p. 166-167).
Students’ paragraph:
Consumers must trust that the research that has gone into the manufacture of new drugs is safe. But it is hard to know if a conflict of interest between doctors, researchers, and the drug company stockholders has tainted the results. Biomedical researchers incorporate strict rules of science into their work, which is examined by peers. Yet the resulting information can be warped for five reasons: ending a study too soon, not publishing negative results, publishing results too early, skimming over or ignoring drawbacks, and “buffing” the results by showing them in the best light (Crossen, 1994, p. 167).

a) The first sentence is a clear example of plagiarism.
b) The second is a paraphrasing example without citing.
c) The rest of the paragraph is a summary of  the original with only one  citation at the end of the last sentence.  This is plagiarism  according to Walden’s Student Catalog (2009-2010).

The first sentence of consideration is: “ Consumers must trust that the research that has gone into the manufacture of new drugs is safe” could have been written, according to APA, as following: “Consumers must trust that the research that has gone into the manufacture of new drugs is safe" (Crossen, 1994, p. 166-167).
The second sentence of consideration is: “Biomedical researchers incorporate strict rules of science into their work, which is examined by peers” should have been written as following: “Biomedical researchers incorporate strict rules of science into their work, which is examined by peers" (Crossen, 1994, p. 166-167).

What is plagiarism-How to avoid it
The term  plagiarism  origins  by the Latin word  plagiarius, the kidnapper and plagium, the kidnapping and firstly used by Benjamin  Johnson,  an English-Scottish dramatist, playwright and poet of the seventeenth century when he accused someone else as a thief (Vinod et all., 2011).
           “Plagiarism is the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own” (Oxford  Dictionaries, 2010).   Additionally,  Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, as it is stated on the first online page of the Plagiarism Organization:
“ -to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own
-to use (another's production) without crediting the source
-to commit literary theft
-to present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source”, (
       The Walden Student Catalog (2009-2010) and in week’s 10 Study Notes (Walden, 2010a)  defines “plagiarism as the use of intellectual material produced by another person without acknowledging its source”. Acknowledging is the most important word in Walden’s definition and according to Oxford Dictionaries (2010), it  is  the “acceptance of  the truth or existence of something  and recognition of the importance or quality of something”. Otherwise, it is corruption and it is sentenced (Al-Awqati, 2007). Laws protect the authors, artists, researchers and the owners  of  copyrights  almost  in every country.
A thorough search in Ebsco database  where I wrote only the word plagiarism and set as years of the articles’ expansion from 2005 until 2012 resulted to 176 peer-reviewed academic  journal   articles where the word plagiarism was either in the title or the main theme or among the key words of the articles. This made me think of the literature’ s and scientists’ concern and interest about the theme.
         Questions arise about the belief that cheating, stealing, plagiarizing  is a matter of  culture  (Leask, 2006).  In the academic world, students from different cultures ought to be taught how to recognize and  avoid plagiarism considering that not every country has laws against plagiarism.  There is a theory about “Us” ( the West thinkers)  where the Origin derives from and “Them” (the East thinkers) where the Occident occurs (Leask, 2006).  A Lancaster University’s researchers’ paper, “ considers differing cultural values among overseas students toward   plagiarism  and  the  implications this may have for postgraduate education in a Western context” (Hayes & Introna , 2005) which means that the researchers took  for granted that there is difference between East and West way of  acting against or towards plagiarism.
         In a digital world where students and scholars are named as “digital natives” by Kate Wittenberg (2006), and data, knowledge, information and opinions are continually shared, copied  and paraphrased  with permission or not, “computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easy enterprise” ( Heckler et. all., 2013). The theory of East and West cultures and values, is invalid, from this aspect.
Securing the insecure, means that we are obliged to respect the  laws about Fair Use,  establish technics to check and prevent from plagiarism such as Turnitin (Heckler et. all., 2013). Values  such as trust and honesty ought to be  adopted between the Academic community members and students from the beginning of their school years. This option  defines teachers’ and professors’ responsibility to inform their students  and  do not tolerate plagiarism (Heckler  et. all., 2013).
 Academic integrity (Walden, 2010b) indicates that quoting and citing is a matter of   honoring  the creative minds and authenticity.  Honor  Codes specified as  honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility in the Center for Academic Integrity ( and a convent between Universities, Libraries, students  and  scholars   all over the world’s academic community  ought to be  respected and supported  as  necessities and high priorities.  This will  reform our personal ethics as scholars, if we have n’ t done it yet.

1.     Al-Awqati, Q. (2007). Plagiarism.   Kidney International. Vol. 71, Issue 2, p91-92. 2p.
2.     Hayes, N., & Introna,  D. L. (2005). Cultural Values, Plagiarism, and Fairness: When Plagiarism Gets in the Way of Learning.  Ethics and Behavior, 5(3), 213–231.
3.     Heckler, C. N.,  Rice, M.,  Hobson, C. B., (2013). Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms. JRTE I. Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 229-248 |
4.     Leask, B. (2006). Plagiarism. Cultural diversity and metaphor—      implications for academic staff development. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. Vol. 31, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 183–199. ISSN 0260-2938 (print)/ISSN 1469-297X (online)/06/020183–17. doi: 10.1080/02602930500262486
5.     Oxford University Press, (2010). Oxford  Dictionary of  English. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Canterbury University. Angus Stevenson (editor).  Retrieved from:
6.      Vinod K.R., Sandhya  S., Sathis Kumar D., Harani  A.,  Banji,D. & Banji, O., (2011).  Plagiarism- history, detection and prevention. Pharmaceutical news and views. Hygeia: journal for drugs and medicines. Hygeia.J.D.Med│Vol.3. Issue.1,Page 1- 4. 2011.. ISSN 2229 3590(online).
7.     Walden University,  (2010a).  Study Notes: Introduction to Scholarly Writing: Plagiarism and Academic Integrity. Retrieved from:
8.     Walden University (2010b). Academic Integrity. Retrieved from:
9.     Wittenberg,  K.  (2006). Beyond Google: What Next for Publishing?  (Essay first appeared on 16 June  2006). Chronicle of Higher Education





by Papanikolaou Asimina

    “Strategy is a plan, or something equivalent-a direction, a guide or course of action into the future, a path to get from here to there. Strategy is also a pattern, that is, consistency in behavior over time” (Mintzeberg, 1994). Under this definition, being a student of an online learning course where skills such as planning and managing time and effort, seem to be critical for the final success (Walden, 2013a). Also, “successful online learners need to be self-driven and motivated to complete coursework without physical presence of an instructor and their peers. Time management and organization are essential to learning online” (Essential Guide to Online Learning, 2013).

     First of all, and before creating a plan, one should study carefully and in every detail any study note, tip, book or online announcement and page of the University’s portal. It is a loss of time to start an online programme and then seek for all the information which is necessary to create a confortable personal studying environment. It is important as it happens with Walden  that “you can find almost everything you need, from online registration to residency information to program forms, on your myWalden page or the Walden home page” (Walden University, 2013b).

     Time management means that time is something that needs to be managed. Time is not unfinished, everlasting and never-ending. As Friedman (1994) claims, “time is the continuous duration in which events succeed one another. Time can be one's ally or adversary. Organization, scheduling, time management, prioritization are all ways to master time”.  As online learners, time for academic studying  is pre-programmed by the University or the School we attend and concerns the assignments we must apply to. The meantime is of our responsibility to manage and organize properly. My time management schedule and plan, comprises of the daily activity stages, as they are depicted in figure 1:


Friday & Saturday
18.00-20.00* : Studying the resources
18.00-20.00 : Studying the resources
18.00-20.00 :     Writing the assignment-preview and make any necessary changes
18.00-20.00 :       Submit the assignment-read a collection of colleagues' postings
18.00-20.00:   Respond to colleagues' postings
*duration  may vary according to the assignment's studying demands

  I am a public servant and I work from 7.00 am to 15.00pm from Monday to Wednesday. I am also, a wife and mother, a writer, a painter and a volunteer which means that organizing my time to study is more than essential. Without time management and planning all my duties, I will not be able to compromise all the roles, the activities and their demands. I, also, need to be continually self-committed and motivated which is easy because I feel fulfilled and useful.

     I curved the day into pieces and from 18.00 to 20.00 (two hours per day at least),  study the notes and the references that are announced in week’s schedule from Monday to Tuesday, write the assignment, preview and make any necessary changes on Wednesday, submit my assignment and read a collection of colleagues' postings on Thursday and finally, respond to my colleagues' postings on Friday.
      I already created an environment that is clear of “leaks” and noise, disturbances or even phone calls and friendly social media chatting (Essential Guide to Online Learning, 2013). Reading and searching for  the key words of the Discussion theme in the notes or materials and the Walden Library and systematically creating my own new notes before starting to write my assignment,  helps me to be well prepared  and well informed about my tasks as a student.
     Knowing my responsibilities and following my plan and my course’s plan as it is scheduled per quarter or term (Walden, 2013c), while asking and receiving from faculty and the University’s student services or the Academic Advisor every information I need and organizing my time according to my personal timeline, I believe that I could be a successful online learner, focused to the final goal which is to earn  my PhD degree.

1.      1. Mintzberg,  S. H., (January/February, 1994). The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning, Harvard Business Review, 23, Reprint number:94107, Retrieved from:
2.      2.Walden University, (2013a). Strategies for online success, Walden University (Study notes). Retrieved June 10, 2013 from:
3.   3.   Walden University, (2013b). Technical Tips for Learning at Walden, Walden University (Study notes).  Retrieved June 11, 2013 from: 
4.     4. Laureate International  Universities Publishing, (2013). Getting started and Tools for success, Section I,  Chapter:  Managing  your time,   Essential Guide to Online Learning  (Rev.edit.),  (p. 22-32).
5.    5.   Friedman,  S., (1994). Time from a handicap to an advantage-Life, National Underwriter / Life & Health Financial Services, 12/5/94, Vol. 98 Issue 49, p.14.
6.      6. Walden University, (2013c). My Walden University Portal (Academics). Retrieved June 11, 2013 from:


3. Critically Reading Books and Articles

Reading a difficult   book
    To read an article or book means   that   there must be a reason, an important reason, for example an essay or research which makes me be severe and concentrated. Then, I skim   the appendix thoroughly. I read the summary and the author’s notes to make amends with his/her point of view and to became familiar with his/her way of thinking and writing. I can, also, understand, reading their remarks or advice on how to read or what to read in each chapter   so as to easily find what I need to find out. I locate the chapters of my interest   and  somehow, create my own backbone of the “new” book writing notes with the specific page numbers. This process will help me   save time and effort. Reading critically this “new” book that I created, I intend to comprehend the   real meaning of the texts (Kurland, D., 2000).  

    I,usually, consult additional references, to clarify theories or definitions  described in the book and are not clear for me to totally incorporate them to my notes (Walden University, 2009).

Note taking

   It is of great importance to fully understand what exactly are  you looking for in an article or a text, participating with all your brain in the process. This requires following two steps:

a)     Being aware of the searching details (analysis -what do you need to find?)
b)    To know  how to conclude (inference-what do you think about what you found?)

Classification of the research’s results, organizing them in a way that facilitates comprehension   and utilization of the results, is the final step. 

Finally, to characterize a text useful, I:
a)   make headnotes and skim it, to “get a clue”
b)  write questions and set marks to specify important paragraphs, ideas, definitions
c)  Outline main ideas and summarize supporting ideas (Salisbury University, 2009).
d)    Create a “new” text  in a condescend form
e)     Discriminate ideas and supportive evidence
f)   Make notes  for the main purpose of the text, key questions and the important information included (R.  Paul & L. Elder, 2003).

   It is not an easy way but after becoming familiar with it, reading and understanding becomes a “friendly” process.

1.     Kurland, D. (2000). Article: What is critical reading? Retrieved from:
2.     Paul, R.  & Elder, L. (2003). Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn  (Part III). Journal of Developmental Education, 26(3), 36–37
3.     Salisbury University. (2009). 7 critical reading strategies. Retrieved from Salisbury University's Student Counseling Services. Website:
4.     Walden University. (2009). Study Notes. Critical Reading Back to Basics: The ABCs of  Doctoral Reading



While searching for information in uncountable databases, a scholar (Engle, M., 2008) can easily be confused and exhausted.  Though, there are certain ways to discriminate between qualitative and non-qualitative knowledge. The discrimination between peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed articles facilitates the clarification of the high quality sources. Peer-reviewed articles are exposed to the criticism and thorough examination of an efficient number of examiners such as field specialists, professors, academic community, in the field of concern, before they are published. This is a proof of a strong commitment to the community that the published articles meet the standards of professionalism and scientific aspects.

            Every peer-reviewed article is written in a scholar format (Walden University, 2010a) including abstracts, specific explanations, purposes, methodology, resources of research, graphs and charts. The main characteristic is that they are based on the truth depicted at the time they are displayed in an non-stop evaluation manner. Academic or Universities’ libraries usually suggest the use of limiters so as to explore peer-reviewed articles that are in advance well-accepted by the majority of the academic community because of their appearance. They are sober, serious and they always cite their resources (Engle, M., 2008).

Non-peer-reviewed articles are useful too, but not as peer-reviewed such as dissertations, even though they are examined by a large number of  experts   in  the field. The same occurs with e-books, magazines, even   for official institutional records or encyclopedias. They are all secondary sources and they differ from the format, the appearance, even to the writer’s language (Walden University, 2010b).

What is “a credible source? What are you looking for?  Who is the writer? Where do you search for information? The key to credibility is the question of trust” (Robert H., 2010).  An institution   or expert that respects his/her future readers and researchers  by sharing reliable, accurate, double-checked, proven information avoiding bias and unsupported claims. In other words, someone that displays the truth. (Harris, R.,  2010).

It is clear that for a researcher it is of high importance to assure credibility in his/her bibliography. This will assure that his/her research is based on credibility, too. One should carefully choose the information from an existing, worldwide e-library collection of databases. Almost every institution, organization, agency, universities and others,  display a huge variety of information, articles, texts, charts to explain their role, work, purpose and  conclusions of research.

It is a challenge and an obligation for the researcher to discriminate between credible and incredible sources (Walden University a). Relevance is acquired by abstracts, key words and limiters, however, only reading the entire text or article and check the provided information, can help a researcher to prove credibility. As Robert Harris (2010) claims, there are tips to select credible information from credible sources and they are -at least- the following:

Author's Name

Author's Title or Position

Author's Organizational Affiliation

Date of Page Creation or Version

Author's Contact Information

Some of the Indicators of Information Quality

For Harris (2010), also these are the  “Indicators of Lack of Credibility”:    


    Lack of Quality Control

    Negative Metainformation

1.      Engle, M. (2008). Article: Distinguishing scholarly journals from other periodicals. Cornell University Library. Retrieved from:
2.      Harris, R. (2010). Article: Evaluating Internet Research Sources
Version Date: November 22, 2010. Previous Version: June 15, 2007. Retrieved from:
3.      Walden University (2010a). Study notes: Introduction to the Walden University Library. Retrieved from:
4.      Walden University (2010b). Study notes: Identifying and Evaluating Online Resources. Retrieved from:


5. Searching and Retrieving materials from databases
by Asimina Papanikolaou

Two  of  the  most important journals  for my studies are  “Journal of Management  Development”  and  “Journal of Organizational Change Management”. Both of them are found in Walden’s Library and  “Emerald” database.
As for the first journal, “Journal of Management  Development” and after a brief search in its appendix during the last ten years, important  subjects are included such as:
 “Responsible Leadership Psychology
Experiential Learning & Management Education
Educational management and leadership
Integrating sustainability in business
Future challenges for business schools        .
Strategic business issues executives
The relationship in executive coaching       
Managing, managerial control and identity
Competencies in the EU” (1)

All these issues are of my interest because the area of my  research includes Management, Education and Leadership in accordance with Innovation and Motivation  of  the public hospitals’ executives. Human resources and Social Change are  also exposed in the second journal “Journal of Organizational Change Management” and this is the second  area of interest as creating Consulting Centers in public hospitals for the staff in Greece is something that not only needs to change the world around you but to create also, a new one because of the absence of the Consultancy to public servants. It seems as if governments think that the  employees know everything at the moment of gaining a diploma or degree and  that  they would  never need help, consultancy, support and lifelong learning.  Theories and good practices of  Ghanging the Management as we knew it, are some of the issues of research in the journal:

“Resistance to change
Sustainability and the need for change       
Narratives in management research           
Journey into Structures of Organization
Changing Practice through Reflection       
The Failure of Transition
Employee-organization relationship in collective entrepreneurship
Rhetoric and Narratives in Management
Work and Play
The novel and organization    
Historical approaches” (2)

During my studies, it seems that I am going to find a huge number of useful resources to support my research. In the meantime, I will start critically reading articles and creating a list with the most relevant and helpful issues for my specialty.

1.     Journal of Management Development.  Retrieved from:  ISSN: 0262-1711

2.     Journal of Organizational Change Management.  Retrieved from:  ISSN: 0953-4814




a)       “Health and Wellness” & b) “Comparison of Health Care Systems”* (specific articles included in Walden’s  learning material)*

Even though both of the articles are  researches about  health  which means a sensitive issue,  it is interesting that we can discriminate lack of credibility and value according to the Evaluating Resources Guides at Walden university provided by the Walden’s Library (Walden University,  2010a). They use appropriate jargon but this does not entail credibility and value. The first article “Health and Wellness” is not a peer-reviewed article, it only informs about results of a research briefly to a specific audience which are the readers of a magazine. It is not cited and even though it uses black and white charts, they cannot be read clearly because of  an informal format.  It is obvious that even though we know the writer, we can not use it without further research and evaluation.
The second article  “Comparison of Health Care System” is not cited also but it seems as if its credibility is somehow higher because of the comparison charts given, their details and the address for more information if anyone may need more explanations or further information and investigation of the supplied results. But it is clear that it cannot be used as it is by scholars as a peer-reviewed article even though it claims to be credible with the help of  the graphics and charts it includes and the names of the authors.
Reading and searching in the internet is an easy way to find uncountable information about a subject or issue but this does not mean that every information is credible and truth, as Marc Meola claims and explains that “students  value three of the five criteria librarians use for evaluating information: accuracy, currency, authority” (Meola, M., 2004). If students use at least these three criteria it is possible to reach credibility of the gathered information.
The methods of evaluation, that I prefer, is the “3 C’s Method” (Walden University, 2010b) which proposes comparison, corroboration and context evaluation of the resources and the “Cars Checklist Method”  which comprises of four extremely important criteria of evaluation: credibility, accuracy, reasonableness and support ( Harris, R., 2010).
Concluding, when judging articles one should follow a strategy to avoid misleading. A strategy or method is not only an evaluating instrument but it should be a trustworthy and efficient support that helps researchers to reach the truth.
1.     Harris, R. (2010). Evaluating Internet research sources. Retrieved from:
2.     Meola, M. (2004). Chucking the Checklist: A Contextual Approach to Teaching Undergraduates Web-Site Evaluation.
Portal: Libraries and the Academy 4.3 (2004) 331-344. Retrieved from:
3.     Walden University, (2010a). Evaluating Resources. Walden Library Guides at Walden University. Retrieved from:
4.     Walden University, (2010b). Evaluation Methods. Retrieved from:




Motivating the Public Sector in Greece

While a discussion around the world  keeps on sustaining the necessity of  scientific management in the public sector according to the principles  and practices of the private sector focused to the needs of the manufacture and the workplaces  (Lee, J. & Muro, M., 2013),  in Greece things are not going at the same pace. The economic crisis emerged in a sudden way and revealed the pathogenia of the public sector in a way that according to newspapers, gallops and friendly discussions, the public sector is to put the blame on.  Government is trying deliberately to collaborate the principles of the private sector and create a new public sector  focused to mobility between sectors and lifelong training and educating the employees to meet with the needs of the economy and the society.
It seems as if  the huge number of people that are pensioned the last  three years opened the gates to the young employees and at the same time these youngsters, came with the air of the newborn leaders of the future. But this only could be possible by changing the way the whole public sector acts and works. This cannot happen from a day to another, but with training, educating and continually motivating the employees, with what we call Scientific Management.
There is an option that cannot be seen without looking carefully and that is the aspect of managing with feelings and emotions not only with numbers, which are crucial, but not the only necessary. According to Bolton’s aspect in her book Emotion Management in the Workplace (2005), employees nowadays are skilled and commonly multi-skilled. This is not enough to achieve prosperity of the organizations.  Something is missing and this is emotions because of her opinion that “organizations do have feelings” (Bolton, 2005) and that management is a project of feelings. 
Human Resource Management with the option of the New Public Sector focused to principles such as encouragement, motivation and “feeling organizations”  maybe  the  key  to  success  in  reforming the old public sector in Greece.
1.     Lee J.,  Muro M., (2013). Strengthening Employment Pathways to Prosperous Careers. Retrieved from:
2.       Bolton, Sh. C. (2005). Emotion Management in the Workplace.(e-reader version).  Retrieved from:

(*the paragraph of concern belongs to Walden's learning materials)

          Reading the paragraph of concern, occurs to me that there are n’t  any strengths to analyze. The theme is the only strong point of the article. In other words, the author had the intention to inform about the use of computers but according to scholarly writing principles he/she did n’t analyze, summarize, compare, contrast, synthesize, evaluate and interpret (Walden, 2010a). He/she, also, failed to demonstrate the issue, using the “essential components” of scholarly writing (Walden, 2010a).
          On the contrary, the author is constantly trying to impress with pompous adjectives, for example: great breakthroughs, powerful learning, very way and long sentences which are spelling and style mistakes (Walden, 2010a).  Also, he/she uses unnecessary  jargon such as the “plugged in” expression which is probably a fact but this does n’t mean that it is the appropriate style of expressing the truth (Walden, 2010b).
Additionally, the writer made the mistake of  writing with vagueness, meaningless, emotion-filled language according to the sentence: “Poor people can now save enough to buy their families a computer for home and school use” which is not scholarly writing  (Walden,  2010b). The author’s effort at scholarly writing failed because the his/her voice is/n’t scholar.
The scholar audience cannot accept as proven and concise the results of a research without citation and solid evidence  (Walden, 2010c). There are n’t any citations in the  paragraph,  neither evidence to prove the truth of the exposed results. The “article in Business Week in 2001” without citation and clear or specific reference is an article that cannot be used to support an idea or a research (Walden, 2010b).
Finally, the author’s paragraph about computers lacks of critical thinking and writing.  It is based on personal opinions, bias, un-stated conclusions or even worse, rumors that cannot educate, inform or persuade a scholarly skilled audience (Walden, 1020a).

1.     Walden University, (2010a). Study notes: Introduction to Scholarly Writing: Purpose, Audience and Evidence. Learning Resources. Retrieved from:
2.     Walden University, (2010b). Study notes: Introduction to Scholarly Writing: Finding a Scholarly Voice. Program Transcript. Learning Resources. Retrieved from:
3.     Walden University, (2010c).  Study notes: Citing a Canter/Laureate Video in APA style. Learning Resources. Retrieved from:


                             CRITICALLY THINKING
                             by Asimina Papanikolaou

As  Kirch and  Stetsenko explain (2012), there is a difference between “I believe” and  “I know”. The first verb explains what a person thinks  about  things while  the second verb states what is  true, reasonable  and  proven. On the other hand, common sense is what is true and believable because many or most people believe it or “think so” but it can be a lie at the same time. For example, it was common sense and a strong belief for people in 17th century that  the earth was flat, until  Galileo proved the opposite  (Encyclopedia DOMI, 2004) .
   All the above definitions are not science, though.  Science is established on research, proof, repeated experiment, continuing evaluation and questioning. (Critical Thinking Community (n.d.), 2009). This means that our minds are machines, running with liquid which is knowledge, derived from answering reasonable questions (Elder & Paul, 2004).
As a scholar-practioner I may have my own beliefs and an open-mind to common sense but I, also, ought to be honest to science. Critically thinking skills are important skills, gained through continuing effort and practicing because it is “an art of ensuring that you use the best thinking you are capable of in any set of circumstances” as Elder and Paul demonstrate (2004). This is a point of view to remember in any situation.  This could be easily understood if I provide an example of persevere belief. Having in mind a definition of who or what is poor people around the world and been emotionally-filled with suicides as a result of the economic crisis in Greece, I used the term poor in an official paper which is not an appropriate term. I felt offended by a remark about the term I used and for a while, which was inappropriate for a scholar- practitioner- I didn’t ask a question to myself or search for the truth. This was a perseverance of my belief that I was right.  A second thought, a question and further research proved the importance of critically thinking and evaluating, for me, as a scholar-practitioner.  
In my area of interest, lack or gain of self-esteem because of continuing education and consulting, the strategy of guiding principles (Friedman, 2004) might be useful as long as data is continuing available and updated to achieve comparison of the measured results. Dialogue between executives and managers in various public hospitals concerning the results of the procedure may lead to encounter early malfunctions, confusions and perseverance of beliefs.

1.     Elder, L., & Paul, R. (2004). Becoming a critic of your thinking: Learning the art of critical thinking.                                              Retrieved on August 1, 2013, from:
2.     Encyclopedia DOMI, vol. 07,  Athens  2004, word:  Galileo.
3.     Friedman, S. (2004). Learning to make more effective decisions: Changing beliefs as a prelude to action. The Learning Organization, 11(2/3), 110–128.
4.     Kirch, A. S., &  Stetsenko,  A., (2012). What does it mean to know? Science & Children. Relished on Summer 2012, 44-49. National Science Teachers Association.  
5.     The Critical Thinking Community. (n.d.). The  role  of  questions in teaching, thinking and learning. Retrieved  on August  1, 2013, from: